بررسی الزامات ورود نظام اشتراک اموال به ساختار نظام مالی خانواده در حقوق ایران با نگاه به حقوق استان کبک/کانادا

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه مونترال/دانشکده حقوق

2 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

با بررسی نظام­های مالی خانواده موجود در سطح بین­المللی، دو دسته از نظام­های مالی را می­توان متمایز نمود. دسته­ی اول نظام­هایی هستند که با اعتقاد به برابری حقوق و مسئولیت­های زوجین در خانواده به تعریف حقوق مالی خانواده می­پردازند. این دسته با پیروی از مدل برابری ارائه شده توسط کنوانسیون رفع هرگونه تبعیض علیه زنان[1]، نظام مالی اشتراک اموال زوجین را به عنوان رژیم مالی قانونی برای خانواده ارائه می­دهند که در آن زن و مرد در آورده­ی یکدیگر در خانواده سهیم می­شوند. دسته­ی دیگر از نظام­های مالی با درنظرگرفتن مرد به عنوان مدیر خانواده و به دنبال آن قراردادن مسئولیت­های مالی خانواده بر عهده­ی وی، مسئولیت­ها و حقوق متفاوتی برای هر یک از زوجین در نظر می­گیرند. در این مدل از نظام مالی خانواده، زن نقش اقتصادی در خانواده ندارد. مرد مسئول پرداخت هزینه­های همسر و فرزندان می­باشد و به دنبال آن حقوق زن برای انجام وظایف و مسئولیت­ها در خانواده باید توسط مرد جبران گردد. نظام حقوقی ایران، با پیروی از مدل ارائه شده توسط فقه امامیه، نظام حقوقی استقلال مالی زوجین را انتخاب نموده و در دسته دوم قرار می­گیرد. در این نوشتار، به دنبال بررسی امکان ورود نظام مالی اشتراک اموال به نظام کنونی خانواده در نظام حقوقی ایران و روند آن با توجه به پایه­های دینی و نیازهای جامعه­ی کنونی، به  بایدها و نبایدهای اعمال این تغییرات خواهیم پرداخت.[1] Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women; CEDAW

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Requirements of Introducing the Common Property System to the Iranian Matrimonial Regime with a view to the Quebec Matrimonial Regime

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fateme Zeynodini 1
  • Seyed Mohamad Hassan Razavi 2
1 University of Montrealّ/Faculty of Law
2 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

legal regimes differ in outlining the method of contribution to the household, financial maintenance, and the division of property after separation/divorce. Some legal regimes, following the CEDAW’s regime, look for an egalitarian regime which rules for similar rights and responsibilities for both parties and partial community of properties between spouses through which economic advantages and disadvantages related to marriage and dissolution of marriage should be born equally by both parties. Another group of legal regimes establishes separation of properties as the guiding principle for marital economic relationship in which the expenses should be borne by men as the heads of the household and women should be compensated for her unpaid contribution to the household.
This research will focus on Iran’s legal system, which follows Sharia (Islamic law) in separation of properties and ruling for compensation of unpaid contribution of women to household. The research compares Iran’s legal system and Quebec’s laws as an example of egalitarian regime and evaluate if Iran’s family law could integrate community regime in its family law with regard to the Sharia principles and its Islamic family law. And which criteria should be considered by Iranian legislator if desire to adopt community regime.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Matrimonial regime- Common property regime- Separation of property regime- Equality- Marital estate
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