حق بر ملاقات کودکان از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد صفادشت

چکیده

مسأله ملاقات کودکان امر مهمی است که علاوه بر والدین دولتها نیز در آن ایفای نقش می کنند. در حقیقت کودکان به دلیل شرایط سنی کم، جهت احقاق حق خود نیاز به حمایت خاص دارند؛ لذا در مواقعی که روند زندگی کودکان تحت تأثیر وقایعی همچون طلاق والدین، نقل مکان یا مهاجرت قرار می گیرد؛ موضوع ملاقات آنها با والدین و خویشاوندان بسیار حائز اهمیت است. از سال 1959 و تصویب اعلامیه حقوق کودک تاکنون اسناد بین المللی جهانی و منطقه ای متعددی در حمایت از حقوق کودک به تصویب رسیده است؛ این در حالی است که کودکان در بسیاری از مواقع در اثر خودخواهی والدین و قصور در انجام تکالیفشان یا بی توجهی دولتها در حمایت از حقوق کودکان با چالش ملاقات مواجه هستند. اگر چه ملاقات کودکان تکلیف نیست اما حق والدین و کودکان محسوب می گردد و حقوقی همچون سلامت و هویت کودک را نیز تحت تأثیر قرار می دهد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Right to Visitation of Children from the Perspective of International Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Meshkibaf
  • Abdollah Abedini
Safadasht Branch Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

The issue of meeting children is important and in addition to parents, States also play a role. In fact, children, due to their low age, need special protection to enforce their rights. Therefore, in situations where the process of life of children is affected by events such as parental divorce, displacement or immigration, it is very important to visitation them with their parents and relatives. Since 1959 and the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights of the Child, there have been several international and regional human rights instruments in support of the rights of the child, however, children are faced with the challenge of visitation in many cases due to parents' selfishness and failing to carry out duties or neglecting States in protecting the rights of children. Although visitation of children is not considered as a duty, it is observed a right for parents and children and affects children's various rights such as health and identity rights

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Law
  • Visitation Right
  • Children Rights
  • Parental Duty
  • State Support
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of The Child, 1990
American Convention On Human Rights, 1969
Appeal from the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida, No. 16-16387, Roque Jacinto Fernandez (Petitioner-Appellant), Christy Nicole Bailey (Respondent-Appellee), 2018
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2000
Convention on the Civil Aspect of International Child Abduction, 1980
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989
Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-Operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children, 1996
Convention on Contact Concerning Children, 2003
Covenant on The Rights of The Child in Islam, 2005
Committee on The Rights of The Child, General Comment No.7, 2005
Declaration on The Rights of The Child, 1959
European Convention On Human Rights, 1950
Feria Tinta, M. (2013). The Landmark Rulings of the Inter American Court of Human Rights on the Rights of The Child, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff
Freeman, M. (2007). A Commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 3, The Best Interests of the Child, Leiden Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
H. harvay, J & A. Fine, M. (2004). Children of Divorce Stories of Loss and Growth, New Jersey: Inc Publishers
Human Rights Committee, General Comment No.17, 1989
Nigel, C & Holzscheiter, A. (2008). A Commentry on the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child. Article 20. Children Deprived of the Family Environment, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Office of the United Nations High commissioner for Human Rights. (2007). Legislative History of The Convention on The Rights of The Child, Vol. 1, New York
Detrick, SH. (1999). A Commentary on The United Nationa Convention on the Rights of the Child, Hague/Boston/ London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 1966
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), 1966
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
Van Bueren, G. (1995). The International Law on The Rights of The Child, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers