تدوین برنامه فرزندپروری مبتنی بر تجارب زیسته مادران کودکان با ناتوان هوشی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

ناتوانی هوشی یک اختلال عصبی رشدی محسوب می­شود که تاثیر بسیار زیادی بر خانواده به خصوص مادران می­گذارد. لذا هدف از این پژوهش تدوین برنامه فرزندپروری مبتنی برتجارب زیسته مادران کودکان ناتوان هوشی بود. برای تدوین برنامه به شیوه کیفی به کاوش تجارب زیسته مادران با استفاده از مصاحبه ژرف­نگر با 12مادر، که دارای کودک ناتوانی هوشی بودند پرداخته شد و مضامین اصلی تجربه­ها از طریق روش Colaizzi کشف شد. سپس بر اساس مضامین اصلی کشف شده به مطالعه مروری کلیه روشهای فرزندپروری و برنامه های مربوطه( که در کتابها و مقالات مختلف مطرح شده بودند) پرداخته شد تا جلسات  فرزندپروری طراحی شود. و در نهایت برنامه فرزندپروری طراحی شده با استفاده از روش گروه­های کانونی بین مشاوران تخصصی مدارس استثنایی استان یزد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و ضریب CVR مربوط به هرجلسه  محاسبه و در مورد برنامه به اجماع رسیده شد و روایی محتوایی و صوری آن مورد تایید قرار گرفت. یافته های حاصل از تجربیات مادران در زندگی با کودک مبتلا به ناتوانی هوشی در 7 مضمون اصلی ( تجربه سرزنش، نگرانی از آینده، مشکلات رفتاری کودک ، اختلال در تعامل، داغ و انزوای اجتماعی، افکار و احساسات منفی و دستاوردهای مثبت ) و 16 مضمون فرعی که به صورت زیرگروه­های مضامین اصلی کدبندی شده­اند، خلاصه گردید. سپس برنامه فرزندپروری مبتنی بر تجارب زیسته مادران دارای کودک ناتوان هوشی با استفاده از مولفه های اساسی درمان مبتنی بر شفقت و روش فرزندپروری مثبت در 9جلسه آموزشی تدوین شد. از آنجایی که برای طراحی این برنامه از تجارب مادران به عنوان مخاطبان اصلی و همچنین مطالعه­ی مروری گسترده منبع علمی برای پاسخگویی به نیازهای آنان استفاده شده است و کلیه جلسات آموزشی مورد بررسی و تایید متخصصان مربوطه قرار گرفته است، به این نتیجه می­رسیم که برنامه طراحی شده از روایی محتوایی و صوری قابل قبولی برخوردار می­باشد و می تواند در جهت پیشرفت کودکان ناتوان هوشی و خانواده­های آنها موثر و مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a parenting program based on the experiences of mothers of children with Intellectual Disability (ID)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Sharifi Ardani
  • Ahmad yarmohamadiyan
  • Amir Ghamarani
University of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Intellectual disability is considered to be a developmental disorder that has a great impact on the family, especially mothers. The aim of the present study was to develop a parenting program based on the study of mothers of children with intellectual disability. To develop the program in a qualitative method, the mothers’ lived-experiences were explored through in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of children with intellectual disability. The main themes of the experiment were discovered through the Colaizzi method. Then, based on the main discovered themes, a review of all parenting methods and related programs (presented in various books and articles) was devoted to the development of parenting sessions. Finally, the parenting program designed using the focal group methodology between the specialist counselors of Yazd Schools of Special Needs and the CVR coefficient for each session was calculated and the program was agreed on. Hence its content and formal validity were confirmed. Findings from the lived-experiences of mothers of children with intellectual disability were summarized in 7 main themes (experience of blame, future worries, child behavior problems, interruptions in interaction, hot and social isolation, negative thoughts and feelings, and positive achievements) and 16 themes encoded as subgroups of the main themes. After that, the parenting program based on the experiences of mothers of children with intellectual disability was developed using the main components of compassion therapy and positive parenting method in 9 sessions. Since the design of this program has been used by experiences of mothers as main audiences as well as a comprehensive review of the scientific resource to meet their needs, and all training sessions have been reviewed and approved by relevant professionals, this caused that the program be designed to have acceptable content and formal validity and can be effective on the development of children with intellectual disability their families.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "mothers"
  • "intellectual disability"
  • "lived experiences"
  • "parenting program"
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