As the title of paper “Inner Peace as the ʽRight Wayʼ (›irāt al-mustaqīm) to Outer Peace” indicates what I intend to clarify is that, although religions can help us to establish world peace, the primary peace upon which all real peace depends is inner peace: it is peace with God and His whole creation (khalq). Thus, within the Islamic context, to discuss the political and legal realities of peace and war, we first need to understand how Islam views these concepts in a general sense: namely, both the inner and outer peace. Once the general Islamic sense of the two terms is clear, we can turn to the specific issue of how traditional and normative Islam would strive to establish peace in today's world
Professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at the Iranian Institute of Philosophy.
In Sufism, even the famous sword of Imam Ali, the distinguished companion of the Prophet in almost all wars called as Dhulfaqār, has a spiritual significance. Dhulfaqār means having two edges. Symbolically, one edge refers to remembrance of God (dhikr) and the other refers to meditation (fikr).
This hadith (prophetic saying) is referred to in many Ṣufi classic texts, for example, Ihyā al-ʽAwlým al-Din by Ghazali.
This hadith is recorded in many narrative sources, such as Ṣahþh al-Buchāri, book of the faith, No.10.
“Oh those who believe enter into the peace all of you and do not follow the temptation of the Satan” (Qur’an, 2:208).
This famous hadith is recorded in many early authorized sources. See: Al-Muʽjam al-Mufahras, ed. By Wensinck, vol.1,p.467.
Maulana Rumi attributed this killing to Imam Ali and, while addressing him, says: بازگو دانم که این اسرار هوست/ زانکه بیشمشير کشتن کار اوست
“Tell me I know that this is of the mysteries of Him (God). Because killing without sword is of His works” (Mathnavi, Nicholson's edition and translation, 1: 3747).
The Mathnawi of Jalaluddin Rumi, ed. and trans. by Reynold A. Nicholson, (1:71).