Establishment of Odontometric Sexual Dimorphism in Archaeological Populations: A Case Study of Ḥasanlu


The accurate sex estimation in skeletal remains is considered to be an important step in the reconstruction of the biological profile of
unknown individual in an archaeological context. Teeth are among the most frequently recovered human tissues that remain after death
as they are hard, long lasting, and resistance to post-mortem insults. In general, males have larger teeth than females and this characteristic
could be used in sex estimation. Present study aimed to investigate the degree of sexual dimorphism in the permanent teeth of Ḥasanlu, the
Iron Age population in the Solduz Valley (West Azerbaijan Province of Iran). The Ḥasanlu site was excavated between 1956 and 1974 by
a joined expedition of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
and Archaeological Service of Iran. The skeletal remains of Ḥasanlu are housed at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology
and Anthropology. In total, the collection consists of 263 individuals including 184 adults and 79 subadults. Analysis of the Ḥasanlu skeletal
material was conducted from April to March 2014 and a total of 51 male and 33 female adult individuals belong to Iron Age levels (V,
IV, and IVB) were used for sex estimation. The cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were collected from 299 upper and
lower 3rd and 4th premolar teeth using Hillson-Fitzgerald dental calliper. Discriminant function analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of each males exceeded that of females. The classification accuracy ranged from 74.6% to 85% with lower 4th premolar providing the highest accuracy rate (85%) and the upper 3rd premolar providing the lowest accuracy rate (74.6%). The results indicated that cervical measurements of the premolar is a reliable method for sex estimation and is useful to predict sex in Iranian archaeological populations.

Sex estimation, cervical tooth measurements, premolars, Ḥasanlu


Acharya, Ashit B. and Sneedha Mainali. 2007. “Univariate Sex Dimorphism in the Nepalese and the Use of Discriminant Functions in

Gender Assessment.” Forensic Science International 173: 47-56.

Andersen, Lis, Juhl, Marianne, Solheim, Tore and Helene Borrman. 1995. “Odontological Identification of Fire Victims—Potentialities and

Limitations.” International Journal of Legal Medicine 107: 229–234.

Angadi, Punnya V., Hemani, S., Sudeendra Prabhu and Ashith B. Acharya. 2013. “Analyses of Odontometric Sexual Dimorphism and

Sex Assessment Accuracy on a Large Sample.” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 20: 673-677.

De Vito, Caterina maria pia sandra and Saunders, Shelly R., 1990. “A Discriminant Function Analysis of Deciduous Teeth to Determine Sex.”

Journal of Forensic Sciences 35: 845-858.

Ditch, Larry E. and Cameron J. Rose. 1972. “A Multivariate Dental Sexing Technique.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 37:


Fereira, Jose Luis, Fereira, Angela Espina and Ana Isabel Ortega. 2008. “Methods for the Analysis of Hard Dental Tissues Exposed to High

Temperatures.” Forensic Science International 178: 119–124.

FitzGerald Charles M. and Simon Hillson. 2005. “Dental Reduction in Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Hominids: Alternative Approaches

to Assessing Tooth Size”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 159: 102.

Garn, Stsnley M. Lewis, Arthur B. and Rose S. Kerewsky. 1966. “Sexual Dimorphism in the Buccolingual Tooth Diameter.” Journal of

Dental Research 45/6: 1819.

Garn, Stanley M. Lewis, Arthur B., Swindler, Daris R. and Rose S. Kerewsky. 1967. “Genetic Control of Sexual Dimorphism in Tooth

Size.” Journal of Dental Research 46/5: 963-972.

Garn, Stanley M. Lewis, Arthur B., and Rose S. Kerewsky. 1968. “The Magnitude and Implications of the Relationship between Tooth Size

and Body Size.” Archives of Oral Biology 13/1: 129-31.

Garn, Stanley M., Cole, Patricia E., Wainwright, Robert L. and Kenneth E. Guire. 1977. “Sex Discriminatory Effectiveness Using Combination of Permanent Teeth.” Journal of Dental Research 56: 697.

Harris, Edward F. and Howard L. Bailit. 1987. “Odontometric Comparisons among Solomon Islanders and Other Oceanic People.”

In The Solomon Islands Project: A Long-Term Study of Health, Human Biology and Culture Change, edited by J. A. Friedlaender, 215-264.

Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hassett, Brenna. 2011. “Technical Note: Estimating Sex Using Cervical Canine Odontometrics: A Test Using a Known Sex Sample.” American

Journal of Physical Anthropology 146: 486-489.

Hattab, Faiez N., Al-Momani, Fouad A.S. and Othman M. Yassin. 1997. “Odontometric Study of Deciduous and Permanenet Teeth in

Jordanians.” Dental Morphology 4: 17-24.

Hillson, Simon. 2002. Dental Anthropology. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hillson, Simon, FitzGerald, Charles M. and Helen Flinn. 2005. “Alternative Dental Measurements: Proposals and Relationships with

Other Measurements.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 126: 413-426.

Işcan, Mehmet Y. and P.Sema Kedici. 2003. “Sexual Variation in Buccolingual Dimensions in Turkish Dentition.” Forensic Science

International 137: 160-164.

Kaushal, Sandeep, Patnaik, Gopichand and Gaurav Agnihotri. 2003. “Mandibular Canine in Sex Determination.” Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 52: 119-124.

Khamis, Mohd F., Jane A. Taylor, Shan N. Malik and Grant T. Townsend. 2014. “Odontometric Sex Variation in Malaysians with Application to

Sex Prediction.” Forensic Science International 234: 183. e3- e7.

Koche, Goran and Sven Poulsen, eds. 2009. Paediatric Dentistry: A Clinical Approach. 2nd Ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Mujib, Ahmed B.R., Tarigoppula, Ranta V.N, Kulkarni, Paven G. and Anil BS. 2014. “Gender Determination Using Diagonal Measurements of Maxillary Molar and Canine Teeth in Davangere Population.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 8/11: ZC141–ZC144.

Nair, Pradeep, Rao, Bhim B. and Raieshwar G. Annigeri. 1999. “A Study of Tooth Size, Symmetry and Sexual Dimorphism.” Journal of

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 16: 10-13.

Phenice, Terrell W., 1969. “A Newly Developed Visual Method of Sexing in the Os Pubis.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology

: 297-301.

Sharma, Sonali, Dinkar, Ajit D. and Sumit Bedi. 2014. “Odontometric Sexual Dimorphism: A Sibling Correlation.” Journal of Clinical and

Diagnostic Research 8/3: 233-235.

Stojanowski, Christopher M., 2007. Comments on “Alternative Dental Measurements” by Hillson et al. American Journal of Physical

Anthropology 132: 234-237.

Tuttösí, Paige and Hugo F. V. Cardoso. 2015. “An Assessment of Sexual Dimorphism and Sex Estimation Using Cervical Dental

Measurements in a Northwest Coast Archaeological Sample.” Journal of Archaeological Science: Report 3: 306-312.

Van Reenen, Johan F., 1982. “The Effects of Attrition on Tooth Dimensions of San (Bushman).” In Tooth Form, Function and Evolution,

edited by B. Kurten, 182-203. New York: Columbia University Press.

Viciano, Joan, Aleman, Inmaculada, D’Anastasio, Ruggero, Capasso, Luigi, and Miguel C. Botella. 2011. “Odontometric Sex Discrimination

in the Herculaneum Sample (79 AD, Naples, Italy), with Application to Juveniles.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145: 97-106.

Viciano, Joan, Lopez-Lazaro, Sandra and Inmaculada Aleman. 2013. “Sex Estimation Based on Deciduous and Permanent Dentition in a

Contemporary Spanish Population.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 152/1: 31-43.

Viciano, Joan, D’Anastasio, Rugger and Luigi Capasso. 2015. “Odontometric Sex Estimation on Three Populations of the Iron Age

from Abruzzo Region (Central-Southern Italy).” Arch Oral Biol 60/1: 100-115.

Vodanovic, Marin, Demo Željko, Njemirovskij, Vera, Keros, Jadranka and Hrvoje Brkić. 2007. “Odontometrics: A Useful Method for Sex

Determination in an Archaeological Skeletal Population?” Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 905-913.

Walker, Phillip L. 2008. “Sexing Skulls Using Discriminant Function Analysis of Visually Assessed Traits.” American Journal of Physical

Anthropology 136: 39–50.

Wallace, John A. 1974. “Approximal Grooving of Teeth.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 40/3: 385-90.

Zorba, Eleni, Moraitis, Konstantinos, and Sotiris K. Manolis. 2011. “Sexual Dimorphism in Permanent Teeth of Modern Greeks.” Forensic

Science International 210: 74-81.

  • There are currently no refbacks.