"تمایز پرخاشگری کنشی و واکنشی در نوجوانان براساس سبک‌ فرزندپروری ادراک شده"

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی موسسه آموزش عالی امام جواد یزد

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

پرخاشگری در میان کودکان و نوجوانان یکی از مشکلات رایج سلامت ذهنی است که مستلزم مداخلات اساسی است. درمیان طبقه­بندی­های متعدد، برخی از مطالعات با توجه به کارکردهای مختلف این مولفه میان دو گونه پرخاشگری کنشی و واکنشی تمایز قائل شده و پیشایندها و نتایج متفاوتی را برای هر کدام شناسایی کردند. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی نقش سبک­های فرزندپروری ادراک شده در نوجوانان در پیش­بینی این دو شکل از پرخاشگری است. در این راستا 138 دختر و پسر نوجوان به روش در دسترس مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج رگرسیون نشان داد که ادراک از سبک فرزندپروری مقتدر بروز کمتر پرخاشگری واکنشی را به طور معناداری در پسران پیش­بینی می­کند. با این­حال در دختران سبک فرزندپروری مستبد به طور معناداری نقش پیش­بینی­کننده­ای برای پرخاشگری واکنشی نشان داد. هم­چنین سبک فرزندپروری سهل­انگار توانست به طور معناداری واریانس پرخاشگری کنشی را تنها در میان افرادی که نمرات بالایی از پرخاشگری به دست آوردند، تبیین نماید. نتایج پژوهش حاضر مؤید تفکیک بیان شده در پرخاشگری با توجه به تمایز بسترهای خانوادگی است. لزوم مطالعات بیشتر در راستای شناسایی علل و مبانی خاص هر گونه و کنش عوامل فردی و محیطی در بروز پرخاشگری جهت علت­شناسی نظام­مند این پدیده و طراحی مداخلات ضروری برای درمان و پیشگیری مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The distinction between reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent based on perceived parenting style

نویسندگان [English]

  • Atefeh Rezaee 1
  • Mohsen Dehghani 2
  • mahmood heidari 2
1 Shahid Beheshti University Imam Javad university College
2 Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Aggression is one of the most common mental health problems among children and adolescents, entailing significant interventions. Among various categorisation of this concept, some studies differentiated reactive from proactive aggression based on different functions it has and identified distinctive antecedents and outcomes for them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a specific perceived parenting style could differently predict reactive and proactive aggression. In this regard, 138 girl and boy adolescents were chosen by convenience sampling method. Regression results showed authoritative parenting style significantly predict the lower incidence of reactive aggression in boys, while the authoritarian parenting style displayed a predictive role for reactive aggression in girls. However, neglectful parenting style significantly explained the variance of proactive aggression only among high aggressive participants. The conclusion can be drawn for confirmation of the dichotomy mentioned above, considering the differential family context. It is suggested to do further study to identify particular causes and bases of reactive and proactive aggression beside the interaction of individual and environmental factors in line with investigating more precise aetiology and designing essential interventions for prevention as well as treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Proactive aggression
  • Reactive aggression
  • Perceived parenting style
- Ahadi, Sogra, Hejazi, Masoud, Entesar Foumany, Gholamhoseen. (2014). Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adolescent's Identitiy And Aggression. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4 2231– 6345.
- Ahangareanzabi, A., Sharifidramadi, P., Farajzadeh, R. (2011). [The Relationship between parenting style and adolescents aggression in Shabestar City], Journal of researches of cognitive and behavioral sciences, 1(1) 1-8 [in Persian].
- Alink, L. R., Mesman, J., Van Zeijl, J., Stolk, M. N., Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. Koot, H. M. (2009). Maternal sensitivity moderates the relation between negative discipline and aggression in early childhood. Social Development, 18 99-120.
- Atkins, Marc S., Stoff, David M. (1993). Instrumental and Hostile Aggression in Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21 (2) 165-78.
- Baker, Laure A., Rain, Adrian, Liu, Jianghong, Jacobson, Kristen. (2008). Differential Genetic and Environmental Influences on Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children, Abnorm Child Psychol, 36(8) 1265- 1278.
- Blair R. J. (2016). The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 26(1) 4–9.
- Blair, R.J.R. (2010). Psychopathy, frustration and reactive aggression: The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. British journal of Psychology, 101 383- 399.
- Bobadilla, L., Johnson, M. M., Tylor, J. (2012). Proactive and Reactive aggression Are Associated with Different Physiological and Personality Profiles, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,31(5) 458-487.
- Brendgen, Mara, Vitaro, Frank, Tremblay, Richard E., Lavoie, Francine (2001). Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Predictions to Physical Violence in Different Contexts and Moderating Effects of Parental Monitoring and Caregiving Behavior, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29 (4) 293-304.
- Caron, Kelly M. (2011). Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Validation of a two- factor Model in Relational Aggression Using Emotional Functioning Variables, Doctor of Philosophy thesis Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Florida state university.
- Combs-Ronto, Lindsey Ann. (2008). Social-Cognitive and Emotion Processing in Children’s Aggression Descriptors, Predictors, and Precursors, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Department pf psychology, University of Michigan.
- Dadds, Mark R, Rhode, Tracy. (2008). Aggression in young children with concurrent callous–unemotional traits: can the neurosciences inform progress and innovation in treatment approaches?, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 363(1503) 2567-2576
- De La Torre-Cruz, M.J., Garcia- Linares, M.C., & Casanova- Arias, P.F. (2014). Relationship between parenting styles and aggressiveness in adolescents. Electronic Journal o Research in Educational Psychology, 12 (1) 147- 170.
- Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression. (PP: 201- 218), Psychology Press.
- Dodge, K.A., Harnish, J.D., Lonchman, J.E., Bates, J.E., Pettit, G.S. (1997).Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106 (1) 37-51.
- Dwairy M. (2004). Parenting styles and mental health of Palestenian-Arab adolescence in Israel. Transcul Psychiatry 41 233-52.
- Ellis, Mesha L., Weiss, Bahr, Lochman, John E. (2009). Executive Functions in Children: Associations with Aggressive Behavior and Appraisal Processing, Journal of Abnorm Child Psychol, 37 (7) 945–956.
- Fite, Paula J., Wimsatt, Amber R., Elkins, Sara, Grassetti, Stevie N. (2011). Contextual Influences of Proactive and Reactive Subtypes of Aggression, Child Indicators Research, 5 (1) 123-133.
- Heidari,m., Dehghani, m., Khodapanahi,m.k. (2009). [The Impact of Perceived Parenting Style and Gender on Self-Handicapping], Journal of Family Research, 5(2) 125-137 [in Persian].
- Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W., Gerris, J.R. (2009). The relationship between parenting and delinquency. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol, 37 749–775.
- Hoseini Gheydari, A. (2014). [The association between parenting styles and aggression among elementary students in Khodabandeh city]. The first Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Education and Psychology, Social and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran [in Persian].
- Hoskins, Donna Hancock. (2014). Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes. Societies, 4 506–531.
- Hubbard, Julie A., McAuliffe, Meghan D., Morrow, Michael T., Romano, Lydia J. (2010). Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood and Adolescence: Precursors, Outcomes, Processes, Experiences, and Measurement, Journal of Personality, 78 (1) 95-118.
- Jia, Shoumei, Wang, Ling, Shi, Yingjuan. (2014). Relationship between Parenting and Proactive Versus Reactive Aggression among Chinese Preschool Children. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 28 152-157.
- Kopko, Kimberly. (2007). Parenting Styles and Adolescents, Retrieved Nov, 20: 2011-19
- Lopez, Estephania Estevez, Perez, Sergio Murgui, Ochoa, Gonzalo MMusitu, Ruiz, David Moreno. (2008). Adolescent aggression: Effects of gender and family and school environments, Journal of adolescence, 31: 433-450.
- Marcus, Robert F. (2007) Aggression and violence in adolescence, New York, NY: Cambridge university press.
- Naghashian, Z. (1989). The relationship between family environment and academic achievement, Master thesis, Shiraz University [in Persian].
- Nair, Shilpa S. (2014). Association between respective parenting style and positive mental health among college students in the age group 18 to 24 years, Master thesis Achutha Menon Centre for health science studies, Thiruvananthapuram University.
- Nelson, Randy J., Trainor, Brian C. (2007). Neural mechanisms of aggression. Neuroscience, Nat Rev Neurosci, 8(7) 536-46.
- Omrani, L. (2018). [Prediction of aggression based on parenting styles among female high school students in Kahnuj], journal of new advances in behavioral sciences, 2(17) 24-36 [in Persian].
- Pakdaman, sh., Khanjani, M. (2012). [The Role of Perceived Parenting in the Relationship between Attachment and Collectivism Styles among University Students], Social Psychology Research, 1(4) 81- 102 [in Persian].
- Raine, Adrian, Dodge, Kenneth, Loeber, Rolf, Gatzke-Kop, Lisa, Lynam, Don, Reynolds, Chandra, Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda, Liu, Jianghong. (2006). The Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys, Aggress Behav, 32(2) 159–171.
- Rappaport, Nancy, Thomas, Christopher. (2004) Recent Research Findings on Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Youth: Implications for Clinical Assessment and Intervention, Joural of Adolescent Health, 35 260–277.
- Rezaee, Atefeh. (2016). Neuropsychological bases of proactive and reactive aggression considering perceived parenting style, Master thesis, faculty of Educational Science and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University [in Persian].
- Richards, Bernadette. (2012). Exploring the association between parenting practices and aggressive behaviour in children, Master thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town.
- Sadeghi, Saeid, Farajzadegan, Ziba, Kelishadi, Roya & Heidari, Kamal. (2014). Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review. Int J Prev Med, Special issue 2 83-96.
- Sajadi, M., Sarabian, S., Sharifi Daramadi, P. (2014). [Comparison of Teen Aggression Level Based on Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Attachment Styles], Journal of medical council of Iran, 31(4) 389-396 [in Persian].
- Steinberg, Laurence (2000) Youth Violence: do parents and families make a difference? National Institute of Justice Journal, 243: 30- 38.
- Trenas, Antonio Felix Raya, Osuna, Maria Jose Pino, Olivares, Rosario Ruiz, Cabrera, Javier Herruzo. (2013). Relationship between Parenting Style and Aggression in a Spanish Children Sample. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82: 529- 536.
- Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M., Fairchild, G., Snoek, H., Harold, Gordon T. (2007). Evidence for a Neurobiological Model of Childhood Antisocial Behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 133 (1) 149–182.
- Vitaro, Frank, Gendreau, Paul L., Tremblay, Richard E., Oligny, Patrice (1998). Reactive and Proactive aggression differentially predict later conduct problems. Journal of Childe Psychol. Psychiat, 39 (3) 377-385.
- Yaghubkhani Ghiasvand, M. (1993), The relationship between family environment and academic achievement, Master thesis, Shiraz University [in Persian].
- Zabihi Hesari, Narjes Khatoon & Hejazi, Elahe. (2011). Mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between the authoritative parenting style and aggression. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30: 1724 – 1730
Ahadi, Sogra, Hejazi, Masoud, Entesar Foumany, Gholamhoseen. (2014). Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adolescent's Identitiy And Aggression. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4 2231– 6345.
Ahangareanzabi, A., Sharifidramadi, P., Farajzadeh, R. (2011). [The Relationship between parenting style and adolescents aggression in Shabestar City], Journal of researches of cognitive and behavioral sciences, 1(1) 1-8 [in Persian].
Alink, L. R., Mesman, J., Van Zeijl, J., Stolk, M. N., Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. Koot, H. M. (2009). Maternal sensitivity moderates the relation between negative discipline and aggression in early childhood. Social Development, 18 99-120.
Atkins, Marc S., Stoff, David M. (1993). Instrumental and Hostile Aggression in Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21 (2) 165-78.
Baker, Laure A., Rain, Adrian, Liu, Jianghong, Jacobson, Kristen. (2008). Differential Genetic and Environmental Influences on Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children, Abnorm Child Psychol, 36(8) 1265- 1278.
Blair R. J. (2016). The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 26(1) 4–9.
Blair, R.J.R. (2010). Psychopathy, frustration and reactive aggression: The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. British journal of Psychology, 101 383- 399.
Bobadilla, L., Johnson, M. M., Tylor, J. (2012). Proactive and Reactive aggression Are Associated with Different Physiological and Personality Profiles, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,31(5) 458-487.
Brendgen, Mara, Vitaro, Frank, Tremblay, Richard E., Lavoie, Francine (2001). Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Predictions to Physical Violence in Different Contexts and Moderating Effects of Parental Monitoring and Caregiving Behavior, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29 (4) 293-304.
Caron, Kelly M. (2011). Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Validation of a two- factor Model in Relational Aggression Using Emotional Functioning Variables, Doctor of Philosophy thesis Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Florida state university.
Combs-Ronto, Lindsey Ann. (2008). Social-Cognitive and Emotion Processing in Children’s Aggression Descriptors, Predictors, and Precursors, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Department pf psychology, University of Michigan.
Dadds, Mark R, Rhode, Tracy. (2008). Aggression in young children with concurrent callous–unemotional traits: can the neurosciences inform progress and innovation in treatment approaches?, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 363(1503) 2567-2576
De La Torre-Cruz, M.J., Garcia- Linares, M.C., & Casanova- Arias, P.F. (2014). Relationship between parenting styles and aggressiveness in adolescents. Electronic Journal o Research in Educational Psychology, 12 (1) 147- 170.
Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression. (PP: 201- 218), Psychology Press.
Dodge, K.A., Harnish, J.D., Lonchman, J.E., Bates, J.E., Pettit, G.S. (1997).Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106 (1) 37-51.
Dwairy M. (2004). Parenting styles and mental health of Palestenian-Arab adolescence in Israel. Transcul Psychiatry 41 233-52.
Ellis, Mesha L., Weiss, Bahr, Lochman, John E. (2009). Executive Functions in Children: Associations with Aggressive Behavior and Appraisal Processing, Journal of Abnorm Child Psychol, 37 (7) 945–956.
Fite, Paula J., Wimsatt, Amber R., Elkins, Sara, Grassetti, Stevie N. (2011). Contextual Influences of Proactive and Reactive Subtypes of Aggression, Child Indicators Research, 5 (1) 123-133.
Heidari,m., Dehghani, m., Khodapanahi,m.k. (2009). [The Impact of Perceived Parenting Style and Gender on Self-Handicapping], Journal of Family Research, 5(2) 125-137 [in Persian].
Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W., Gerris, J.R. (2009). The relationship between parenting and delinquency. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol, 37 749–775.
Hoseini Gheydari, A. (2014). [The association between parenting styles and aggression among elementary students in Khodabandeh city]. The first Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Education and Psychology, Social and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran [in Persian].
Hoskins, Donna Hancock. (2014). Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes. Societies, 4 506–531.
Hubbard, Julie A., McAuliffe, Meghan D., Morrow, Michael T., Romano, Lydia J. (2010). Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood and Adolescence: Precursors, Outcomes, Processes, Experiences, and Measurement, Journal of Personality, 78 (1) 95-118.
Jia, Shoumei, Wang, Ling, Shi, Yingjuan. (2014). Relationship between Parenting and Proactive Versus Reactive Aggression among Chinese Preschool Children. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 28 152-157.
Kopko, Kimberly. (2007). Parenting Styles and Adolescents, Retrieved Nov, 20: 2011-19
Lopez, Estephania Estevez, Perez, Sergio Murgui, Ochoa, Gonzalo MMusitu, Ruiz, David Moreno. (2008). Adolescent aggression: Effects of gender and family and school environments, Journal of adolescence, 31: 433-450.
Marcus, Robert F. (2007) Aggression and violence in adolescence, New York, NY: Cambridge university press.
Naghashian, Z. (1989). The relationship between family environment and academic achievement, Master thesis, Shiraz University [in Persian].
Nair, Shilpa S. (2014). Association between respective parenting style and positive mental health among college students in the age group 18 to 24 years, Master thesis Achutha Menon Centre for health science studies, Thiruvananthapuram University.
Nelson, Randy J., Trainor, Brian C. (2007). Neural mechanisms of aggression. Neuroscience, Nat Rev Neurosci, 8(7) 536-46.
Omrani, L. (2018). [Prediction of aggression based on parenting styles among female high school students in Kahnuj], journal of new advances in behavioral sciences, 2(17) 24-36 [in Persian].
Pakdaman, sh., Khanjani, M. (2012). [The Role of Perceived Parenting in the Relationship between Attachment and Collectivism Styles among University Students], Social Psychology Research, 1(4) 81- 102 [in Persian].
Raine, Adrian, Dodge, Kenneth, Loeber, Rolf, Gatzke-Kop, Lisa, Lynam, Don, Reynolds, Chandra, Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda, Liu, Jianghong. (2006). The Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys, Aggress Behav, 32(2) 159–171.
Rappaport, Nancy, Thomas, Christopher. (2004) Recent Research Findings on Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Youth: Implications for Clinical Assessment and Intervention, Joural of Adolescent Health, 35 260–277.
Rezaee, Atefeh. (2016). Neuropsychological bases of proactive and reactive aggression considering perceived parenting style, Master thesis, faculty of Educational Science and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University [in Persian].
Richards, Bernadette. (2012). Exploring the association between parenting practices and aggressive behaviour in children, Master thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town.
Sadeghi, Saeid, Farajzadegan, Ziba, Kelishadi, Roya & Heidari, Kamal. (2014). Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review. Int J Prev Med, Special issue 2 83-96.
Sajadi, M., Sarabian, S., Sharifi Daramadi, P. (2014). [Comparison of Teen Aggression Level Based on Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Attachment Styles], Journal of medical council of Iran, 31(4) 389-396 [in Persian].
Steinberg, Laurence (2000) Youth Violence: do parents and families make a difference? National Institute of Justice Journal, 243: 30- 38.
Trenas, Antonio Felix Raya, Osuna, Maria Jose Pino, Olivares, Rosario Ruiz, Cabrera, Javier Herruzo. (2013). Relationship between Parenting Style and Aggression in a Spanish Children Sample. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82: 529- 536.
Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M., Fairchild, G., Snoek, H., Harold, Gordon T. (2007). Evidence for a Neurobiological Model of Childhood Antisocial Behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 133 (1) 149–182.
Vitaro, Frank, Gendreau, Paul L., Tremblay, Richard E., Oligny, Patrice (1998). Reactive and Proactive aggression differentially predict later conduct problems. Journal of Childe Psychol. Psychiat, 39 (3) 377-385.
Yaghubkhani Ghiasvand, M. (1993), The relationship between family environment and academic achievement, Master thesis, Shiraz University [in Persian].
Zabihi Hesari, Narjes Khatoon & Hejazi, Elahe. (2011). Mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between the authoritative parenting style and aggression. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30: 1724 – 1730.