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مقایسۀ علایم اختلالات اضطرابی، ابراز هیجان و پذیرش اجتماعی در کودکان دارای تجربه‌ی طلاق و مرگ والدین با کودکان عادی

چکیده

تجربه‌ی طلاق و مرگ والدین، می‌تواند به مشکلات روانشناختی و رفتاری زیادی در کودکان منجر شود. هدف پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه‌ی علایم اختلالات اضطرابی، ابراز هیجان و پذیرش اجتماعی در کودکان طلاق، دارای تجربه مرگ والدین و عادی بود. روش پژوهش از نوع علّی- مقایسه‌ای بود. در این پژوهش 71 کودک طلاق و 63 کودک مواجه با مرگ یکی از والدین به صورت کل­شماری و 134 کودک عادی به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده‌ها از پرسشنامه‌ی غربالگری اضطراب کودک مرتبط با اختلالات هیجانی، مقیاس ابراز هیجان و مقیاس پذیرش اجتماعی و برای تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون تحلیل کواریانس چندمتغیری دوراهه (مانکوای دوراهه) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که علایم اختلالات اضطرابی (اختلال پانیک، اختلال اضطراب فراگیر، اختلال اجتنابی، اختلال اضطراب اجتماعی، اختلال اجتناب از مدرسه)، مشکل در ابراز هیجان ( ابراز هیجان ضعیف، بی­میلی در ابراز هیجان) در کودکان طلاق و دارای تجربه­ ی مرگ والدین بیشتر از کودکان عادی بود. همچنین میانگین اختلالات اضطرابی (ابعاد آن) و مشکل در ابراز هیجان (ابعاد آن) در دختران بیشتر از پسران بود. علاوه­براین، پذیرش اجتماعی در کودکان طلاق کمتر از کودکان عادی بود. براساس نتایج، استفاده از آموزش‌ها و درمان‌های روانشناختی برای علایم اختلالات اضطرابی، مشکل در ابراز هیجان و پذیرش اجتماعی پایین در کودکان دارای تجربه­ی طلاق والدین و مرگ والدین والدین پیشنهاد می‌شود.

واژگان کلیدی
ابراز هیجان، پذیرش اجتماعی، طلاق، اختلالات اضطرابی، مرگ والدین

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